Today it is possible to recognize authentic ivory very easily. Musical instrument in ivory, Africa Buddha temple, China ivory Classification of the material. Sometimes, in addition to elephant tusks, the horns of other animals and some kinds of bone are inaccurately included in the category of ivory. Furthermore, increasingly perfect synthetic materials are being produced today which cannot be distinguished from ivory by their appearance alone. All these materials consist of distinct molecules which can be recognized simply and clearly using spectrographic analysis see figure right. In order to perform the test, it is sufficient to extract a few milligrams of material household drill and mail the sample to a specialized laboratory.
The very first glass making occurred naturally in the form of obsidian formed during volcanic eruption. Man made glass has been around since at least 5, BC when it was discovered by accident when the heat from fires melted the basic ingredients of glass together. It was not until about 3, BC that it was used, firstly for glazing clay pots and then for making objects such as vases. Various objects using different production methods were made throughout the centuries until the beginning of the 20th Century when modern, mass production techniques were developed.
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Scientists have developed a new method to determine the age of ancient mummies, old artwork, and other relics without causing damage to these treasures of global cultural heritage. Reporting at the th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society ACS , they said it could allow scientific analysis of hundreds of artifacts that until now were off limits because museums and private collectors did not want the objects damaged. In theory, it could even be used to date the Shroud of Turin. Rowe explained that the new method is a form of radiocarbon dating, the archaeologist's standard tool to estimate the age of an object by measuring its content of naturally-occurring radioactive carbon. Traditional carbon dating involves removing and burning small samples of the object.
Dating techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of rocks, fossils, or artifacts. Relative dating methods tell only if one sample is older or younger than another; absolute dating methods provide an approximate date in years. The latter have generally been available only since